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BackgroundThe global emergence of antimicrobial resistance is driven by antibiotic misuse and overuse. However, systematic data in Indonesian hospitals to adequately inform policy are scarce.ObjectivesTo evaluate patterns and quality indicators of antibiotic prescribing in six general hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia.MethodsWe conducted a hospital-wide point prevalence survey (PPS) between March and August 2019, using Global-PPS and WHO-PPS protocols. The analysis focused on antibacterials (antibiotics) for systemic use.ResultsOf 1602 inpatients, 993 (62.0%) received ≥1 antimicrobial. Of 1666 antimicrobial prescriptions, 1273 (76.4%) were antibiotics. Indications comprised community-acquired infections (42.6%), surgical prophylaxis (22.6%), hospital-acquired infections (18.5%), medical prophylaxis (9.6%), unknown (4.6%) and other (2.1%). The most common reasons for antibiotic prescribing were pneumonia (27.7%), skin and soft tissue infections (8.3%), and gastrointestinal prophylaxis (7.9%). The most prescribed antibiotic classes were third-generation cephalosporins (44.3%), fluoroquinolones (13.5%), carbapenems (7.4%), and penicillins with β-lactamase inhibitor (6.8%). According to the WHO AWaRe classification, Watch antibiotics accounted for 67.4%, followed by 28.0% Access and 2.4% Reserve. Hospital antibiotic guidelines were not available for 28.1% of prescriptions, and, where available, guideline compliance was 52.2%. Reason for the antibiotic prescription, stop/review date and planned duration were poorly documented. Culture-guided prescriptions comprised 8.1% of community-acquired infections and 26.8% of hospital-acquired infections.ConclusionsOur data indicate a high rate of empirical use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in Indonesian hospitals, coupled with poor documentation and guideline adherence. The findings suggest important areas for antimicrobial stewardship interventions.

Original publication





JAC-antimicrobial resistance

Publication Date





Eijkman-Oxford Clinical Research Unit, Jakarta, Indonesia.