Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Nepal suffers from high burden of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) due to inappropriate use of antibiotics. The main objective of this study was to explore knowledge, attitude and practices of antibiotics uses among patients, healthcare workers, laboratories, drug sellers and farmers in eight districts of Nepal. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between April and July 2017. A total of 516 individuals participated in a face-to-face interview that included clinicians, private drug dispensers, patients, laboratories, public health centers/hospitals and, livestock and poultry farmers. Out of 516 respondents, 62.8% (324/516) were patients, 16.9% (87/516) were clinicians, 6.4% (33/516) were private drug dispensers. A significant proportion of patients (42.9%; 139/324) thought that fever could be treated with antibiotics. Majority (79%; 256/324) of the patients purchased antibiotics over the counter. The knowledge of antibiotics used among patients increased proportionately with the level of education: literate only [AOR = 1.4 (95% Cl = 0.6-4.4)], versus secondary education (8-10 grade) [AOR = 1.8 (95% Cl = 1.0-3.4)]. Adult patients were more aware of antibiotic resistance. Use of antibiotics over the counter was found high in this study. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to antibiotic among respondents showed significant gaps and need an urgent effort to mitigate such practice.

Original publication





Scientific reports

Publication Date





Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.