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Abstract Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in COVID-19. This study investigated adults hospitalised with COVID-19 and hypothesised that risk factors for AKI would include co-morbidities and non-white race. Methods A prospective multicentre cohort study was performed using patients admitted to 254 UK hospitals with COVID-19 between January 17th 2020 and December 5th 2020. Results Of 85,687 patients, 2,198 (2.6%) received acute kidney replacement therapy (KRT). Of 41,294 patients with biochemistry data, 13,000 (31.5%) had biochemical AKI: 8,562 stage 1 (65.9%), 2,609 stage 2 (20.1%) and 1,829 stage 3 (14.1%). The main risk factors for KRT were chronic kidney disease (CKD: Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.41: 95% confidence interval 3.06-3.81), male sex (aOR 2.43: 2.18-2.71) and black race (aOR 2.17: 1.79-2.63). The main risk factors for biochemical AKI were admission respiratory rate >30 breaths per minute (aOR 1.68: 1.56-1.81), CKD (aOR 1.66: 1.57-1.76) and black race (aOR 1.44: 1.28-1.61). There was a gradated rise in the risk of 28-day mortality by increasing severity of AKI: stage 1 aOR 1.58 (1.49-1.67); stage 2 aOR 2.41 (2.20-2.64); stage 3 aOR 3.50 (3.14-3.91); KRT aOR 3.06 (2.75-3.39). AKI rates peaked in April 2020 and the subsequent fall in rates could not be explained by the use of dexamethasone or remdesivir. Conclusions AKI is common in adults hospitalised with COVID-19 and it is associated with a heightened risk of mortality. Although the rates of AKI have fallen from the early months of the pandemic, high-risk patients should have their kidney function and fluid status monitored closely.

Original publication

DOI

10.1093/ndt/gfab303

Type

Journal

Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Publisher

Oxford University Press (OUP)

Publication Date

18/10/2021