Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Epidemiologic data regarding health care acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) from Nepal are negligible. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a major tertiary hospital in Nepal between April 2016 and March 2018, to calculate the incidence of VAP, and to describe clinical variables, microbiological etiology, and outcomes. Four hundred and thirty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. Demographic data, medical history, antimicrobial administration record, chest X-ray, biochemical, microbiological and haematological results, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score and the sequential organ failure assessment scores were recorded. Categorical variables were expressed as count and percentage and analyzed using the Fisher's exact test. Continuous variables were expressed as median and interquartile range and analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test and the pairwise Wilcoxon rank-sum test. 46.8% (205/438) of the patients required intubation. Pneumonia was common in both intubated (94.14%; 193/205) and non-intubated (52.36%; 122/233) patients. Pneumonia developed among intubated patients in the ICU had longer days of stay in the ICU (median of 10, IQR 5-15, P< 0.001) when compared to non-intubated patients with pneumonia (median of 4, IQR 3-6, P< 0.001). The incidence rate of VAP was 20% (41/205) and incidence density was 16.45 cases per 1,000ventilator days. Mortality was significantly higher in patients with pneumonia requiring intubation (44.6%, 86/193) than patients with pneumonia not requiring intubation (10.7%, 13/122, p<0.001, Fisher's exact test). Gram negative bacteria such as Klebsiella and Acinetobacter species were the dominant organisms from both VAP and non-VAP categories. Multi-drug resistance was highly prevalent in bacterial isolates associated with VAP (90%; 99/110) and non-VAP categories (81.5%; 106/130). HAP including VAP remains to be the most prevalent hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) at Patan hospital. A local study of etiological agents and outcomes of HAP and VAP are required for setting more appropriate guidelines for management of such diseases.

Original publication





PloS one

Publication Date





Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Patan Hospital, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Kathmandu, Nepal.


Humans, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Cohort Studies, Prospective Studies, Adult, Aged, Middle Aged, Nepal, Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated