The psychological distress of parents is associated with reduced linear growth of children: Evidence from a nationwide population survey
Susiloretni KA., Smith ER., Suparmi None., Marsum None., Agustina R., Shankar AH.
Background Stunting, an indicator of restricted linear growth, has become a primary measure of childhood undernutrition due to its persistent high prevalence globally, and importance for health and development. Although the etiology is recognized as complex, most analyses have focused on social and biomedical determinants, with limited attention on psychological factors affecting care and nurturing in the home. We assessed whether the psychological distress of parents is related to child linear growth and stunting, and documented the associated risk factors, and examined the relationship between parental distress and behavioral and other risk factors for stunting. Methods We used data from the Indonesia National Health Survey 2013, including 46,315 children 6–59 months of age. Multivariate linear, logistic, and multilevel multinomial logistic regression, using survey weights, were used to assess the relationship between parental distress, as assessed by the WHO Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ20), with height-for-age z score (HAZ), stunting, and behavioral and other risk factors for stunting. Results Maternal, paternal and parental distress (i.e. both maternal and paternal distress) were associated with reduced linear growth of the children by 0.086 (95% CI -0.17, -0.00), 0.11 (95% CI -0.24, -0.02) and 0.19 (95% CI -0.37, -0.00) HAZ-scores, respectively. Maternal and paternal distress increased the risk of mild stunting (HAZ