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BACKGROUND: The reduction of Kenya´s TB burden requires improving resource allocation both to and within the National TB, Leprosy and Lung Disease Program (NTLD-P). We aimed to estimate the unit costs of TB services for budgeting by NTLD-P, and allocative efficiency analyses for future National Strategic Plan (NSP) costing.METHODS: We estimated costs of all TB interventions in a sample of 20 public and private health facilities from eight counties. We calculated national-level unit costs from a health provider´s perspective using bottom-up (BU) and top-down (TD) approaches for the financial year 2017-2018 using Microsoft Excel and STATA v16.RESULTS: The mean unit cost for passive case-finding (PCF) was respectively US$38 and US$60 using the BU and TD approaches. The unit BU and TD costs of a 6-month first-line treatment (FLT) course, including monitoring tests, was respectively US$135 and US$160, while those for adult drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) treatment was respectively US$3,230.28 and US$3,926.52 for the 9-month short regimen. Intervention costs highlighted variations between BU and TD approaches. Overall, TD costs were higher than BU, as these are able to capture more costs due to inefficiency (breaks/downtime/leave).CONCLUSION: The activity-based TB unit costs form a comprehensive cost database, and the costing process has built-in capacity within the NTLD-P and international TB research networks, which will inform future TB budgeting processes.

Original publication





The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

Publication Date





1028 - 1034


Health Economics Research Unit, KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.