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ObjectiveTo assess the bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of men with primary HIV-1 infection (PHI).MethodsThirty-three men with PHI had a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were defined according to WHO criteria as T-scores between -1 and -2.5 and -2.5 or less, respectively. The association between clinical and laboratory parameters and BMD was investigated using multivariable linear regression analysis.ResultsMean age was 38 (SD 9) years and mean body mass index (BMI) 22.7 (SD 3.3) kg/m. Twenty-four men (73%) had a negative or indeterminate Western blot, 32 men (97%) were combination antiretroviral therapy-naive. Mean plasma HIV-1 RNA was 5.0 (SD 1.2) log10 copies/ml. Mean lumbar spine T (-0.8, SD 1.3, P = 0.001) and Z-scores (-0.7, SD 1.3, P = 0.004) and femoral neck T-score (-0.5, SD 0.9, P = 0.003) were significantly lower compared to the reference population. 15/33 men (45%) had osteopenia and 2/33 (6%) osteoporosis. Markers of bone turnover did not differ between patients with or without osteopenia/osteoporosis. Age was negatively associated with femoral neck (beta-coefficient = -0.05, P < 0.001) and total hip T-scores (beta = -0.03, P = 0.04). BMI was associated with lumbar spine (beta = 0.3), femoral neck (beta = 0.2) and total hip (beta = 0.2) T-scores (P < 0.001) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with lumbar spine (beta = 0.5, P = 0.045) and femoral neck T-scores (beta = 0.4, P = 0.005). Increased plasma viral load was associated with lower total hip T-scores (beta = -0.2, P = 0.02).ConclusionsReduced BMD was prevalent in PHI men and was associated with increased age, lower BMI and TSH levels, and higher levels of HIV-1 viremia.

Original publication





AIDS (London, England)

Publication Date





2233 - 2238


Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Internal Medicine, The Netherlands.


Hip, Femur Neck, Lumbar Vertebrae, Humans, HIV-1, HIV Infections, Osteoporosis, Absorptiometry, Photon, Body Mass Index, Viral Load, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Bone Density, Adult, Male