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PurposeTo describe the characteristics and procedural outcomes of source control interventions among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients with severe intra-abdominal-infection (IAI).Material and methodsWe identified consecutive patients with suspected IAI in whom a source control intervention had been performed in two tertiary ICUs in the Netherlands, and performed retrospective in-depth case reviews to evaluate procedure type, diagnostic yield, and adequacy of source control after 14 days.ResultsA total of 785 procedures were observed among 353 patients, with initial interventions involving 266 (75%) surgical versus 87 (25%) percutaneous approaches. Surgical index procedures typically involved IAI of (presumed) gastrointestinal origin (72%), whereas percutaneous index procedures were mostly performed for infections of the biliary tract/pancreas (50%) or peritoneal cavity (33%). Overall, 178 (50%) patients required multiple interventions (median 3 (IQR 2-4)). In a subgroup of 236 patients having their first procedure upon ICU admission, effective source control was ultimately achieved for 159 (67%) subjects. Persistence of organ failure was associated with inadequacy of source control at day 14, whereas trends in inflammatory markers were non-predictive.ConclusionsApproximately half of ICU patients with IAI require more than one intervention, yet successful source control is eventually achieved in a majority of cases.

Original publication





Journal of critical care

Publication Date





258 - 264


Department of Epidemiology, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, the Netherlands; Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, the Netherlands. Electronic address:


MARS consortium, Humans, Cross Infection, Critical Illness, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Critical Care, Retrospective Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, Aged, Middle Aged, Intensive Care Units, Netherlands, Female, Male, Intraabdominal Infections