Biomarker Predictors of Adverse Acute Kidney Injury Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients: The Dublin Acute Biomarker Group Evaluation Study.
McMahon BA., Galligan M., Redahan L., Martin T., Meaney E., Cotter EJ., Murphy N., Hannon C., Doran P., Marsh B., Nichol A., Murray PT.
BackgroundThe Dublin Acute Biomarker Group Evaluation (DAMAGE) Study is a prospective 2-center observational study investigating the utility of urinary biomarker combinations for the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of acute kidney injury (AKI) in a heterogeneous adult intensive care unit (ICU) population. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether serial urinary biomarker measurements, in combination with a simple clinical model, could improve biomarker performance in the diagnostic prediction of severe AKI and clinical outcomes such as death and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT).MethodsUrine was collected daily from patients admitted to the ICU, for a total of 7 post-admission days. Urine biomarker concentrations (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], α-glutathione S-transferase [GST], π-GST, kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1], liver-type fatty acid-binding protein [L-FABP], Cystatin C, creatinine, and albumin) were measured. Urine biomarkers were combined with a clinical prediction of AKI model, to determine ability to predict AKI (any stage, within 2 days or 7 days of ICU admission), or a -30-day composite clinical outcome (RRT - or death).ResultsA total of 257 (38%) patients developed AKI within 7 days of ICU admission. Of those who developed AKI, 106 (41%) patients met stage 3 AKI within 7 days of ICU admission and 208 patients of the entire study cohort (31%) met the composite clinical endpoint of in-hospital mortality or RRT within 30 days of ICU admission. The addition of urinary NGAL/albumin to the clinical model modestly improved the prediction of AKI, in particular severe stage 3 AKI (area under the curve [AUC] of 0.9 from 0.87, p = 0.369) and the prediction of 30-day RRT or death (AUC 0.83 from 0.79, p = 0.139).ConclusionA clinical model incorporating severity of illness, patient demographics, and chronic illness with currently available clinical biomarkers of renal function was strongly predictive of development of AKI and associated clinical outcomes in a heterogeneous adult ICU population. The addition of urinary NGAL/albumin to this simple clinical model improved the prediction of severe AKI, need for RRT and death, but not at a statistically or clinically significant level, when compared to the clinical model alone.