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Abstract Background Health workers’ compliance with outpatient malaria ‘test and treat’ guidelines has improved since 2010 but plateaued from 2014 at suboptimal levels in Kenya. This study examined the factors associated with high but suboptimal compliance levels at facilities with available malaria tests and drugs. Methods Data from four national, cross-sectional health facility surveys undertaken between 2014 and 2016 in Kenya were analysed. Association between 31 factors and compliance with malaria testing (survey range (SR): 65–69%) and no anti-malarial treatment for test negative patients (SR: 90–92%) were examined using multilevel logistic regression models. Results A total of 2,752 febrile patients seen by 594 health workers at 486 health facilities were analysed. Higher odds of malaria testing were associated with lake endemic (aOR = 12.12; 95% CI: 5.3–27.6), highland epidemic (aOR = 5.06; 95% CI: 2.7–9.5) and semi-arid seasonal (aOR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.2–3.6) compared to low risk areas; faith-based (FBO)/ non-governmental organization (NGO)-owned compared to government-owned facilities (aOR = 5.80; 95% CI: 3.2–10.6); health workers’ perception of malaria endemicity as high-risk (aOR = 3.05; 95% CI: 1.8–5.2); supervision with feedback (aOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.2–2.9); access to guidelines (aOR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.1–3.4); older patients compared to infants, higher temperature measurements and main complaints of fever, diarrhoea, headache, vomiting and chills. Lower odds of testing were associated with febrile patients having main complaints of a cough (aOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.5–0.9), a rash (aOR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.2–0.7) or a running nose (aOR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.4–0.9). Other factors associated with compliance with test negative results included the type of diagnostic test available at the facility, in-service training, health workers’ age, and correct knowledge of the targeted treatment policy. Conclusions To optimize outpatient malaria case-management, reduce testing compliance gaps and eliminate overtreatment of test negative patients, there is a need to focus on compliance within low malaria risk areas in addition to ensuring the universal and continuous availability of ‘test and treat’ commodities. Targeting of older and government health workers; dissemination of updated guidelines; and continuing with in-service training and supportive supervision with feedback is essential. Lastly, there is a need to improve health workers’ knowledge about malaria testing criteria considering their perceptions of endemicity.

Original publication





Malaria Journal


Springer Science and Business Media LLC

Publication Date