Long-term benefits of probiotics and calcium supplementation during childhood, and other biomedical and socioenvironmental factors, on adolescent neurodevelopmental outcomes
Rianda D., Suradijono SHR., Setiawan EA., Susanto F., Meilianawati M., Prafiantini E., Kok FJ., Shankar AH., Agustina R.
We evaluated the impact of 6-month probiotics and calcium supplementation at 1–6 years of age on neurodevelopment in adolescence, along with the effects of other biomedical and socioenvironmental factors. We re-enrolled 238 adolescents 10-years after supplementation with low-lactose milk with either low calcium (LC; ∼50 mg/d; n = 53), regular calcium (RC; ∼440 mg/d; n = 70), RC with 5x108 CFU/d Lactobacillus reuteri DSM17938 (reuteri; n = 55), or RC with 5x108 CFU/d L. casei CRL431 (casei; n = 60). Compared to RC, the casei group scored 0.38 SD (effect size, 0.04–0.72) higher on the Raven's Progressive Matrices; the reuteri group was 0.38 SD (0.01–0.75) lower on the Children's Depression Inventory; and the LC and younger adolescents in the reuteri group were 0.36 (0.01–0.71) and 0.49 SD (0.02–0.95) lower in brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Diet quality, physical activity, and home environment contributed similar effect sizes. Probiotics supplementation in childhood have strain-specific long-term neurodevelopmental benefits and integration with socioenvironmental interventions are warranted.