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BackgroundUp to 69% of adults who acquire HIV in Kenya seek care before seroconversion, providing an important opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment. The Tambua Mapema Plus (TMP) trial tested a combined HIV-1 nucleic acid testing, linkage, treatment, and partner notification intervention for adults aged 18-39 years with symptoms of acute HIV infection presenting to health facilities in coastal Kenya. We estimated the potential impact of TMP on the Kenyan HIV epidemic.MethodsWe developed an agent-based network model of HIV-1 transmission using TMP data and Kenyan statistics to estimate potential population-level impact of targeted facility-based testing over 10 years. Three scenarios were modeled: standard care [current use of provider-initiated testing and counseling (PITC)], standard HIV rapid testing scaled to higher coverage obtained in TMP (scaled-up PITC), and the TMP intervention.ResultsStandard care resulted in 90.7% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) knowing their status, with 67.5% of those diagnosed on treatment. Scaled-up PITC resulted in 94.4% of PLWH knowing their status and 70.4% of those diagnosed on treatment. The TMP intervention achieved 97.5% of PLWH knowing their status and 80.6% of those diagnosed on treatment. The percentage of infections averted was 1.0% (95% simulation intervals: -19.2% to 19.9%) for scaled-up PITC and 9.4% (95% simulation intervals: -8.1% to 24.5%) for TMP.ConclusionOur study suggests that leveraging new technologies to identify acute HIV infection among symptomatic outpatients is superior to scaled-up PITC in this population, resulting in >95% knowledge of HIV status, and would reduce new HIV infections in Kenya.

Original publication





Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)

Publication Date





553 - 561


Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.


Humans, HIV-1, HIV Infections, HIV Seropositivity, Nucleic Acids, Mass Screening, Counseling, Adult, Outpatients, Kenya