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ObjectivesCommunity-onset bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae complex (ECC) species are increasing internationally. This observation suggests that ECC are emerging pathogens, requiring for detailed understanding on their genomic epidemiology including transmission dynamics and antimicrobial resistance profiles.Patients and methodsWe performed WGS on 79 Enterobacter spp. isolated from the patients with clinically significant BSIs and admitted to emergency department of a major tertiary hospital in Nepal between April 2016 and October 2017.ResultsWe identified 5 species and 13 STs of ECC. Enterobacter xiangfangensis ST171, one of the globally emerging carbapenem resistant ECC clones with epidemic potential, was the most prevalent (42%). Phylogenetic analysis showed a large (>19 400 SNPs) core genome SNP distance across major STs, which was minimal (<30 SNPs) among the isolates of each prevalent ST, suggesting the relatively recent importation of major STs followed by local clonal expansions. Genomic evidence for resistance to all major antimicrobial classes except for colistin and macrolides was detected. A limited number of isolates also carried bla NDM-1 (n = 2) and bla OXA-48 (n = 1) carbapenemase genes. Virulence factors encoding siderophores (24%), T6SSD (25%) and fimbriae (54%) were detected.ConclusionsOur study highlighted that MDR ECC clones are important pathogens of BSIs in community. Though of low prevalence, carbapenem resistance observed in our ECC isolates raised concern about further community dissemination, underscoring the need for community surveillance to identify MDR ECC clones with epidemic potential.

Original publication





JAC-antimicrobial resistance

Publication Date





Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal.