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This article reviews a very recent field of noninvasive analysis of turbid media using micro-scale Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy - micro-SORS. The technique combines conventional SORS with microscopy concepts and represents a new imaging modality in Raman microscopy. Micro-SORS facilitates analytical capability for investigating non-destructively the chemical composition of subsurface, micrometer-scale-thick diffusely scattering layers at depths more than an order of magnitude larger than those accessible with the depth resolving power of conventional confocal Raman microscopy. Potential application areas include nondestructive subsurface analysis of painted layers in cultural heritage, characterization of stratified polymer systems, analysis of layered biological samples or forensic analysis. The article discusses the basic principles of the technique, its variants and outlines emerging applications in this rapidly evolving field.

Original publication





The Analyst

Publication Date





731 - 739


Central Laser Facility, Research Complex at Harwell, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, Oxford, OX11 0QX, UK.


Triticum, Seeds, Spectrum Analysis, Raman, Monte Carlo Method, Scattering, Radiation, Paper, Paint