Evaluation of ivermectin mass drug administration for malaria transmission control across different West African environments.
Alout H., Krajacich BJ., Meyers JI., Grubaugh ND., Brackney DE., Kobylinski KC., Diclaro JW., Bolay FK., Fakoli LS., Diabaté A., Dabiré RK., Bougma RW., Foy BD.
BackgroundMass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin to humans for control and elimination of filarial parasites can kill biting malaria vectors and lead to Plasmodium transmission reduction. This study examines the degree and duration of mosquitocidal effects resulting from single MDAs conducted in three different West African countries, and the subsequent reductions in parity and Plasmodium sporozoite rates.MethodsIndoor-resting, blood-fed and outdoor host-seeking Anopheles spp. were captured on days surrounding MDAs from 2008-2013 in Senegalese, Liberian and Burkinabé villages. Mortality was assessed on a portion of the indoor collection, and parity status was determined on host-seeking mosquitoes. The effect of MDA was then analysed against the time relative to the MDA, the distributed drugs and environmental variables.ResultsAnopheles gambiae survivorship was reduced by 33.9% for one week following MDA and parity rates were significantly reduced for more than two weeks after the MDAs. Sporozoite rates were significantly reduced by >77% for two weeks following the MDAs in treatment villages despite occurring in the middle of intense transmission seasons. These observed effects were consistent across three different West African transmission dynamics.ConclusionsThese data provide a comprehensive and crucial evidence base for the significant reduction in malaria transmission following single ivermectin MDAs across diverse field sites. Despite the limited duration of transmission reduction, these results support the hypothesis that repeated MDAs with optimal timing could help sustainably control malaria as well as filarial transmission.