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IntroductionTraumatic brain injury (TBI) is a heterogeneous condition in terms of pathophysiology and clinical course. Outcomes from moderate to severe TBI (msTBI) remain poor despite concerted research efforts. The heterogeneity of clinical management represents a barrier to progress in this area. PRECISION-TBI is a prospective, observational, cohort study that will establish a clinical research network across major neurotrauma centres in Australia. This network will enable the ongoing collection of injury and clinical management data from patients with msTBI, to quantify variations in processes of care between sites. It will also pilot high-frequency data collection and analysis techniques, novel clinical interventions, and comparative effectiveness methodology.Methods and analysisPRECISION-TBI will initially enrol 300 patients with msTBI with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) <13 requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission for invasive neuromonitoring from 10 Australian neurotrauma centres. Demographic data and process of care data (eg, prehospital, emergency and surgical intervention variables) will be collected. Clinical data will include prehospital and emergency department vital signs, and ICU physiological variables in the form of high frequency neuromonitoring data. ICU treatment data will also be collected for specific aspects of msTBI care. Six-month extended Glasgow Outcome Scores (GOSE) will be collected as the key outcome. Statistical analysis will focus on measures of between and within-site variation. Reports documenting performance on selected key quality indicators will be provided to participating sites.Ethics and disseminationEthics approval has been obtained from The Alfred Human Research Ethics Committee (Alfred Health, Melbourne, Australia). All eligible participants will be included in the study under a waiver of consent (hospital data collection) and opt-out (6 months follow-up). Brochures explaining the rationale of the study will be provided to all participants and/or an appropriate medical treatment decision-maker, who can act on the patient's behalf if they lack capacity. Study findings will be disseminated by peer-review publications.Trial registration numberNCT05855252.

Original publication





BMJ open

Publication Date





Department of Intensive Care, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.


Humans, Brain Injuries, Glasgow Coma Scale, Cohort Studies, Prospective Studies, Australia, Observational Studies as Topic, Brain Injuries, Traumatic