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Klebsiella pneumoniae causes community- and healthcare-associated infections in children and adults. Globally in 2019, an estimated 1.27 million (95% Uncertainty Interval [UI]: 0.91-1.71) and 4.95 million (95% UI: 3.62-6.57) deaths were attributed to and associated with bacterial antimicrobial resistance (AMR), respectively. K. pneumoniae was the second leading pathogen in deaths attributed to AMR resistant bacteria. Furthermore, the rise of antimicrobial resistance in both community- and hospital-acquired infections is a concern for neonates and infants who are at high risk for invasive bacterial disease. There is a limited antibiotic pipeline for new antibiotics to treat multidrug resistant infections, and vaccines targeted against K. pneumoniae are considered to be of priority by the World Health Organization. Vaccination of pregnant women against K. pneumoniae could reduce the risk of invasive K.pneumoniae disease in their young offspring. In addition, vulnerable children, adolescents and adult populations at risk of K. pneumoniae disease with underlying diseases such as immunosuppression from underlying hematologic malignancy, chemotherapy, patients undergoing abdominal and/or urinary surgical procedures, or prolonged intensive care management are also potential target groups for a K. pneumoniae vaccine. A 'Vaccine Value Profile' (VVP) for K.pneumoniae, which contemplates vaccination of pregnant women to protect their babies from birth through to at least three months of age and other high-risk populations, provides a high-level, holistic assessment of the available information to inform the potential public health, economic and societal value of a pipeline of K. pneumoniae vaccines and other preventatives and therapeutics. This VVP was developed by a working group of subject matter experts from academia, non-profit organizations, public-private partnerships, and multi-lateral organizations, and in collaboration with stakeholders from the WHO. All contributors have extensive expertise on various elements of the K.pneumoniae VVP and collectively aimed to identify current research and knowledge gaps. The VVP was developed using only existing and publicly available information.

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South Africa Medical Research Council Vaccines and Infectious Diseases Analytics Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Electronic address: