Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BackgroundHepatitis C virus (HCV) has been mainly transmitted through injection drug use, but recently, sexual transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), which is also a major route of HIV transmission, is increasing. However, the prevalence of HIV and the incidence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HCV patients have been rarely reported.MethodsUsing a healthcare insurance claim data of employees and their dependents covering seven-million people in Japan, we evaluated HIV prevalence among HCV patients aged 20-59 years. Hemophilia patients were excluded. HIV and HCV were defined by registered diagnoses and receiving viral RNA testing. The time course of HCV and HIV infections was analyzed. Incidences of syphilis, amebiasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B were assessed.ResultsFrom April 2012 to August 2018, 6,422 HCV patients were identified. HIV prevalence was 0.48% (31/6422, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 0.33-0.68%). HIV was diagnosed after HCV in 3.2% (1/31), before HCV in 58.1% (18/31), and concurrently in 38.7% (12/31). Compared with HCV patients without HIV infection, HCV/HIV co-infected patients were younger (median age, 37 vs 51 years, p ConclusionsHIV prevalence among young male HCV patients was very high in Tokyo. HCV/HIV co-infected patients were more likely to acquire HIV before HCV, which is a known feature of MSM. They also had a higher incidence of STIs. These findings suggest that HCV might be prevalent as an STI among MSM particularly in Tokyo.

Original publication





BMC infectious diseases

Publication Date





Department of Infectious Diseases and Applied Immunology, IMSUT Hospital of The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan.


Humans, Hepacivirus, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Hepatitis C, HIV Infections, Prevalence, Cohort Studies, Homosexuality, Male, Adult, Middle Aged, Insurance, Health, Japan, Female, Male, Young Adult, Sexual and Gender Minorities