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Men who have sex with men (MSM) who use injection drugs (MSM-IDU) are at high risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but the long-term incidence is unclear. We conducted a single-centre retrospective cohort study using the clinical records of non-haemophilia men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who visited the Institute of Medical Science, the University of Tokyo (IMSUT) Hospital, located in Tokyo, Japan, from 2013 to 2022. We analysed 575 patients including 62 heterosexual males and 513 MSM patients, of whom 6.8% (35/513) were injection drug use (IDU). Compared to non-IDU MSM, MSM-IDU had a higher incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) (44.8 vs 3.5 /1,000 person-years (PY); incidence rate ratio (IRR) [95% confidence interval (95% CI)], 12.8 [5.5-29.3], p 

Original publication





Epidemiol Infect

Publication Date





HIV disease (AIDS), hepatitis C virus (HCV), injecting drug use (IDU), sexually transmitted infections (STIs), syphilis (T. pallidum infection), Male, Humans, Homosexuality, Male, Syphilis, HIV, HIV Infections, Retrospective Studies, Tokyo, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Sexual and Gender Minorities, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Hepatitis C, Hepacivirus, Incidence