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Production of tumor necrosis factor by human macrophages may be induced in vitro by cytoadherent and noncytoadherent strains of Plasmodium falciparum, with an optimal ratio of one to three parasitized erythrocytes per macrophage. Centrifuged and heated crude culture supernatants have the same effect, thus showing the existence of a thermostable soluble factor able to induce this expression. In vitro kinetic experiments have shown that the secretion of tumor necrosis factor appears early, with a maximal peak at 8 h.



Infection and immunity

Publication Date





214 - 216


Unité URA 1344 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Hôpital A. Michallon, Grenoble, France.


Erythrocytes, Macrophages, Animals, Plasmodium falciparum, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Immunity, Cellular