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Three Brazilian polyspecific Bothrops antivenoms were compared using standard W.H.O. rodent in vivo and in vitro assays of their ability to neutralize the principal venom activities of pooled whole Bothrops jararaca venom. On a volume basis, the antivenoms were equally effective in neutralizing lethal activity in mice, and there were only minor differences in their ability to neutralize venom-induced haemorrhage, necrosis and procoagulant activity. Antivenom efficacy in neutralizing defibrinogenation varied. However, when equal amounts of antivenom IgG were compared, it was found that the FUNED antivenom best neutralized lethality, haemorrhage, necrosis and fibrinogen clotting activity. Vital Brazil and FUNED antivenoms were equally effective in neutralizing plasma coagulant activity but Vital Brazil antivenom was the more effective in neutralizing defibrinogenation.

Original publication





Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology

Publication Date





1219 - 1225


Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, U.K.


Animals, Mice, Hemorrhage, Necrosis, Fibrinogen, Immunoglobulin G, Snake Venoms, Crotalid Venoms, Antivenins, Neutralization Tests, Lethal Dose 50, Blood Coagulation