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Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for persons infected with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has greatly improved over the past few years. However, data on long-term clinical outcomes of Africans receiving HAART, patterns of HIV resistance to antiretroviral drugs and implications of HIV type-1 (HIV-1) subtype diversity in Africa for resistance, are limited. In resource-limited settings, concerns have been raised that deficiencies in health systems could create the conditions for accelerated development of resistance. Coordinated surveillance systems are being established to assess the emergence of resistance and the factors associated with resistance development, and to create the possibility for adjusting treatment guidelines as necessary. The purpose of this report is to review the literature on HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral drugs in sub-Saharan Africa, in relation to the drug regimens used in Africa, HIV-1 subtype diversity and overall prevalence of resistance. The report focuses on resistance associated with treatment, prevention of mother-to-child transmission and transmitted resistance. It also outlines priorities for public health action and research.



Antiviral therapy

Publication Date





625 - 639


PharmAccess Foundation, Center for Poverty-Related Communicable Diseases, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


PharmAccess African Studies to Evaluate Resistance Programme, Humans, HIV-1, Pregnancy Complications, Infectious, HIV Infections, Anti-HIV Agents, Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, Drug Resistance, Viral, Pregnancy, Adult, Infant, Newborn, Africa South of the Sahara, Female, Clinical Trials as Topic, Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical