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<jats:title>SUMMARY</jats:title><jats:p>In November 2013, national public health agencies in England and Scotland identified an increase in laboratory-confirmed <jats:italic>Salmonella</jats:italic> Mikawasima. The role of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a risk factor for salmonellosis is unclear; we therefore captured information on PPI usage as part of our outbreak investigation. We conducted a case-control study, comparing each case with two controls. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Thirty-nine of 61 eligible cases were included in the study. The median age of cases was 45 years; 56% were female. Of these, 33% were admitted to hospital and 31% reported taking PPIs. We identified an association between PPIs and non-typhoidal salmonellosis (aOR 8·8, 95% CI 2·0–38·3). There is increasing evidence supporting the existence of an association between salmonellosis and PPIs; however, biological studies are needed to understand the effect of PPIs in the pathogenesis of <jats:italic>Salmonella</jats:italic>. We recommend future outbreak studies investigate PPI usage to strengthen evidence on the relevance of PPIs in <jats:italic>Salmonella</jats:italic> infection. These findings should be used to support the development of guidelines for patients and prescribers on the risk of gastrointestinal infection and PPI usage.</jats:p>

Original publication





Epidemiology and Infection


Cambridge University Press (CUP)

Publication Date





968 - 975