Association between use of proton pump inhibitors and non-typhoidal salmonellosis identified following investigation into an outbreak of Salmonella Mikawasima in the UK, 2013
FREEMAN R., DABRERA G., LANE C., ADAMS N., BROWNING L., FOWLER T., GORTON R., PETERS T., MATHER H., ASHTON P., DALLMAN T., GODBOLE G., TUBIN-DELIC D., CHARLETT A., FISHER I., ADAK GK.
<jats:title>SUMMARY</jats:title><jats:p>In November 2013, national public health agencies in England and Scotland identified an increase in laboratory-confirmed <jats:italic>Salmonella</jats:italic> Mikawasima. The role of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a risk factor for salmonellosis is unclear; we therefore captured information on PPI usage as part of our outbreak investigation. We conducted a case-control study, comparing each case with two controls. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Thirty-nine of 61 eligible cases were included in the study. The median age of cases was 45 years; 56% were female. Of these, 33% were admitted to hospital and 31% reported taking PPIs. We identified an association between PPIs and non-typhoidal salmonellosis (aOR 8·8, 95% CI 2·0–38·3). There is increasing evidence supporting the existence of an association between salmonellosis and PPIs; however, biological studies are needed to understand the effect of PPIs in the pathogenesis of <jats:italic>Salmonella</jats:italic>. We recommend future outbreak studies investigate PPI usage to strengthen evidence on the relevance of PPIs in <jats:italic>Salmonella</jats:italic> infection. These findings should be used to support the development of guidelines for patients and prescribers on the risk of gastrointestinal infection and PPI usage.</jats:p>