New Variant of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Associated with Invasive Disease in Immunocompromised Patients in Vietnam
Mather AE., Phuong TLT., Gao Y., Clare S., Mukhopadhyay S., Goulding DA., Hoang NTD., Tuyen HT., Lan NPH., Thompson CN., Trang NHT., Carrique-Mas J., Tue NT., Campbell JI., Rabaa MA., Thanh DP., Harcourt K., Hoa NT., Trung NV., Schultsz C., Perron GG., Coia JE., Brown DJ., Okoro C., Parkhill J., Thomson NR., Chau NVV., Thwaites GE., Maskell DJ., Dougan G., Kenney LJ., Baker S.
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title> <jats:p>Nontyphoidal <jats:italic>Salmonella</jats:italic> (NTS), particularly <jats:italic>Salmonella enterica</jats:italic> serovar Typhimurium, is among the leading etiologic agents of bacterial enterocolitis globally and a well-characterized cause of invasive disease (iNTS) in sub-Saharan Africa. In contrast, <jats:italic>S</jats:italic>. Typhimurium is poorly defined in Southeast Asia, a known hot spot for zoonotic disease with a recently described burden of iNTS disease. Here, we aimed to add insight into the epidemiology and potential impact of zoonotic transfer and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in <jats:italic>S</jats:italic>. Typhimurium associated with iNTS and enterocolitis in Vietnam. We performed whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction on 85 human (enterocolitis, carriage, and iNTS) and 113 animal <jats:italic>S</jats:italic>. Typhimurium isolates isolated in Vietnam. We found limited evidence for the zoonotic transmission of <jats:italic>S</jats:italic>. Typhimurium. However, we describe a chain of events where a pandemic monophasic variant of <jats:italic>S</jats:italic>. Typhimurium (serovar I:4,,12:i:− sequence type 34 [ST34]) has been introduced into Vietnam, reacquired a phase 2 flagellum, and acquired an IncHI2 multidrug-resistant plasmid. Notably, these novel biphasic ST34 <jats:italic>S</jats:italic>. Typhimurium variants were significantly associated with iNTS in Vietnamese HIV-infected patients. Our study represents the first characterization of novel iNTS organisms isolated outside sub-Saharan Africa and outlines a new pathway for the emergence of alternative <jats:italic>Salmonella</jats:italic> variants into susceptible human populations.</jats:p> <jats:p><jats:bold>IMPORTANCE</jats:bold> <jats:italic>Salmonella</jats:italic> Typhimurium is a major diarrheal pathogen and associated with invasive nontyphoid <jats:italic>Salmonella</jats:italic> (iNTS) disease in vulnerable populations. We present the first characterization of iNTS organisms in Southeast Asia and describe a different evolutionary trajectory from that of organisms causing iNTS in sub-Saharan Africa. In Vietnam, the globally distributed monophasic variant of <jats:italic>Salmonella</jats:italic> Typhimurium, the serovar I:4,,12:i:− ST34 clone, has reacquired a phase 2 flagellum and gained a multidrug-resistant plasmid to become associated with iNTS disease in HIV-infected patients. We document distinct communities of <jats:italic>S</jats:italic>. Typhimurium and I:4,,12:i:− in animals and humans in Vietnam, despite the greater mixing of these host populations here. These data highlight the importance of whole-genome sequencing surveillance in a One Health context in understanding the evolution and spread of resistant bacterial infections.</jats:p>