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We evaluated immune biomarker profiles in HIV-infected adults (n=398) from 5 African countries. Although all biomarkers decreased after ART initiation, CXCL10, LBP, CRP, sCD163 and sCD14 were significantly higher during ART than in an HIV-negative reference group (n=90), indicating persistent monocyte/macrophage activation, inflammation and microbial translocation. Before ART initiation, high HIV viral load was associated with elevated CXCL10 and tuberculosis coinfection was associated with elevated sCD14. High pre-ART levels of each biomarker strongly predicted residual immune activation during ART. CCL2, LBP, CRP, IL-6 were differentially expressed between countries. Further research is needed on the clinical implications of residual immune dysregulation.

Original publication





The Journal of infectious diseases

Publication Date



Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, and Department of Global Health, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.