Genetic surveillance in the Greater Mekong Subregion and South Asia to support malaria control and elimination
Jacob CG., Thuy-Nhien N., Mayxay M., Maude RJ., Quang HH., Hongvanthong B., Vanisaveth V., Duc TN., Rekol H., van der Pluijm RW., Von Seidlein L., Fairhurst RM., Nosten FH., Hossain MA., Park N., Goodwin S., Ringwald P., Chindavongsa K., Newton PN., Ashley EA., Phalivong S., Maude RR., Leang R., Huch C., Dong LT., Nguyen K-T., Nhat TM., Hien TT., Nguyen H., Zdrojewski N., Canavati SE., Sayeed AA., Uddin D., Buckee C., Fanello CI., Onyamboko M., Peto T., Tripura R., Amaratunga C., Thu AM., Delmas G., Landier J., Chau NH., Lek D., Suon S., Callery JJ., Jittamala P., Hanboonkunupakarn B., Pukrittayakamee S., Phyo AP., Smithuis F., Lin K., Thant M., Hlaing TM., Satpathi P., Satpathi S., Behera PK., Tripura A., Baidya S., Valecha N., Anvikar AR., Islam AU., Faiz A., Kunasol C., Drury E., Kekre M., Ali M., Love K., Rajatileka S., Jeffreys AE., Rowlands K., Hubbart CS., Dhorda M., Vongpromek R., Kotanan N., Wongnak P., Garcia JA., Pearson RD., Ariani CV., Chookajorn T., Malangone C., Nguyen T., Stalker J., Jeffery B., Keatley J., Johnson K., Muddyman D., Chan XHS., Sillitoe J., Amato R., Simpson V., Gonçalves S., Rockett K., Day NP., Dondorp AM., Kwiatkowski DP., Miotto O.
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>The use of parasite genetic data by National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) is currently limited, and typically focused on specific genetic features or a small number of study sites. We have developed GenRe-Mekong, a platform for genetic surveillance of malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). By integrating simple sample collection procedures in the routine operations of public health facilities, GenRe-Mekong enables NMCPs to conduct large-scale surveillance project in endemic regions. Samples are processed by the SpotMalaria platform, which uses high-throughput technologies to produce a broad set of genotypes, including most known drug resistance markers, species markers and a genomic barcode. Through the application of heuristics based on published evidence, GenRe-Mekong delivers Genetic Report Cards, a compendium of genotypes and phenotype predictions that are used to map prevalence of resistance to multiple drugs. To date, GenRe-Mekong has worked with NMCPs in five countries, and with several large-scale research projects, processing 9,623 samples from clinical cases. The monitoring of resistance markers has been especially valuable for NMCPs tracking the recent rapid spread of DHA-piperaquine resistant parasites across the region. In Vietnam and Laos, data from GenRe-Mekong have provided novel knowledge about the spread of these resistant strains in provinces previously thought to be unaffected. GenRe-Mekong facilitates data sharing by aggregating at regional level results from different countries, providing cross-border views of the spread of resistant strains.</jats:p>