Eradication of Staphylococcus aureus colonization by chronic use of mupirocin in patients on home parenteral nutrition.
Gompelman M., Wertheim HFL., Bleeker-Rovers CP., Wanten GJA.
ObjectivesAlthough in other groups Staphylococcus aureus eradication has proven to be an effective infection prevention measure, to our knowledge, no such studies have been performed in patients on home parenteral nutrition (HPN). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of chronic nasal mupirocin use on S. aureus eradication and prevention of catheter related infections in patients on HPN.MethodsThis was a cohort study with data collected from adult patients on HPN who were screened for S. aureus carriage. In case of carriage, the patient was instructed to apply mupirocin nasal ointment monthly. Outcomes were the percentage of successful S. aureus eradication and the effect on the incidence of catheter-related infections and development of mupirocin resistance.ResultsS. aureus nasal carriage was found in 54% of the patients. Eradication was successful in 66% (70 of 106) of patients treated with mupirocin. Overall S. aureus catheter-related infection rates decreased by 50% (P = 0.02). The decrease was mostly due to a drop in central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates (0.26versus 0.1 per 1000 central venous catheter days; P = 0.04). The overall CLABSI rates decreased as well (incidence ratio rate, 0.43; 95% confidence interval. 0.24-0.76; P < 0.01). Low-level mupirocin resistance was observed in four patients.ConclusionsFindings from the present study highlighted the potential usefulness of mupirocin ointment prophylaxis to establish S. aureus eradication in patients on HPN. However, awareness for the development of mupirocin resistance is prudent. Further research needs to be carried out to validate these findings.