Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Microbiota of Human Gut and Its Direct Environment in a Household Cohort with High Background of Antibiotic Use
Vu Thi Ngoc B., Ho Bich H., Galazzo G., Vu Tien Viet D., Oomen M., Nghiem Nguyen Minh T., Tran Huy H., van Doorn HR., Wertheim HFL., Penders J.
Comprehensive insight into the microbiota of the gut of humans and animals, as well as their living environment, in communities with a high background of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance genes is scarce. Here, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the (dis)similarities in the microbiota of feces from humans (n = 107), domestic animals (n = 36), water (n = 89), and processed food (n = 74) in a cohort with individual history of antibiotic use in northern Vietnam. A significantly lower microbial diversity was observed among individuals who used antibiotics in the past 4 months (n = 44) compared to those who did not (n = 63). Fecal microbiota of humans was more diverse than nonhuman samples and shared a small part of its amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) with feces from animals (7.4% (3.2–9.9)), water (2.2% (1.2–2.8)), and food (3.1% (1.5–3.1)). Sharing of ASVs between humans and companion animals was not associated with the household. However, we did observe a correlation between an Enterobacteriaceae ASV and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M-group-2 encoding genes in feces from humans and animals (p = 1.6 × 10−3 and p = 2.6 × 10−2, respectively), hinting toward an exchange of antimicrobial-resistant strains between reservoirs.