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<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>In Mekong Delta farms (Vietnam), antimicrobials are extensively used, but limited data are available on levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among<jats:named-content content-type="genus-species">Escherichia coli</jats:named-content>isolates. We performed a structured survey of AMR in<jats:named-content content-type="genus-species">E. coli</jats:named-content>isolates (<jats:italic>n</jats:italic>= 434) from 90 pig, chicken, and duck farms. The results were compared with AMR among<jats:named-content content-type="genus-species">E. coli</jats:named-content>isolates (<jats:italic>n</jats:italic>= 234) from 66 small wild animals (rats and shrews) trapped on farms and in forests and rice fields. The isolates were susceptibility tested against eight antimicrobials.<jats:named-content content-type="genus-species">E. coli</jats:named-content>isolates from farmed animals were resistant to a median of 4 (interquartile range [IQR], 3 to 6) antimicrobials versus 1 (IQR, 1 to 2) among wild mammal isolates (<jats:italic>P</jats:italic>&lt; 0.001). The prevalences of AMR among farmed species isolates (versus wild animals) were as follows: tetracycline, 84.7% (versus 25.6%); ampicillin, 78.9% (versus 85.9%); trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 52.1% (versus 18.8%); chloramphenicol, 39.9% (versus 22.5%); amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 36.6% (versus 34.5%); and ciprofloxacin, 24.9% (versus 7.3%). The prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) (resistance against three or more antimicrobial classes) among pig isolates was 86.7% compared to 66.9 to 72.7% among poultry isolates. After adjusting for host species, MDR was ∼8 times greater among isolates from wild mammals trapped on farms than among those trapped in forests/rice fields (<jats:italic>P</jats:italic>&lt; 0.001). Isolates were assigned to unique profiles representing their combinations of susceptibility results. Multivariable analysis of variance indicated that AMR profiles from wild mammals trapped on farms and those from domestic animals were more alike (<jats:italic>R</jats:italic><jats:sup>2</jats:sup>range, 0.14 to 0.30) than<jats:named-content content-type="genus-species">E. coli</jats:named-content>isolates from domestic animals and mammals trapped in the wild (<jats:italic>R</jats:italic><jats:sup>2</jats:sup>range, 0.25 to 0.45). The results strongly suggest that AMR on farms is a key driver of environmental AMR in the Mekong Delta.</jats:p>

Original publication

DOI

10.1128/aem.03366-14

Type

Journal

Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Publisher

American Society for Microbiology

Publication Date

01/02/2015

Volume

81

Pages

812 - 820