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To determine the extent of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in sub-Saharan Africa and the serotypes that cause disease, we analyzed surveillance data for 64,741 hospital admissions in Kilifi, Kenya, during 1998-2011. We evaluated incidence, clinical presentations, and emm types that cause invasive GAS infection. We detected 370 cases; of the 369 for which we had data, most were skin and soft tissue infections (70%), severe pneumonia (23%), and primary bacteremia (14%). Overall case-fatality risk was 12%. Incidence of invasive GAS infection was 0.6 cases/1,000 live births among neonates, 101/100,000 person-years among children <1 year of age, and 35/100,000 among children <5 years of age. Genome sequencing identified 88 emm types. GAS causes serious disease in children in rural Kenya, especially neonates, and the causative organisms have considerable genotypic diversity. Benefit from the most advanced GAS type-specific vaccines may be limited, and efforts must be directed to protect against disease in regions of high incidence.

Original publication

DOI

10.3201/eid2202.151358

Type

Journal article

Journal

Emerging infectious diseases

Publication Date

02/2016

Volume

22

Pages

224 - 232

Keywords

Humans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcal Infections, Streptococcal Vaccines, Population Surveillance, Incidence, Mortality, Risk Factors, Phylogeny, Adolescent, Adult, Middle Aged, Child, Child, Preschool, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Rural Population, Kenya, Young Adult, Multilocus Sequence Typing